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Species-Independent Modeling of High-Frequency Ultrasound Backscatter in Hyaline Cartilage

Apparent integrated backscatter (AIB) is a common ultrasound parameter used to assess cartilage matrix degeneration. However, the specific contributions of chondrocytes, proteoglycan and collagen to AIB remain unknown. To reveal these relationships, this work examined biopsies and cross sections of human, ovine and bovine cartilage with 40-MHz ultrasound biomicroscopy. Site-matched estimates of collagen concentration, proteoglycan concentration, collagen […]

Arthroscopic optical coherence tomography provides detailed information on articular cartilage lesions in horses

Arthroscopy enables direct inspection of the articular surface, but provides no information on deeper cartilage layers. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), based on measurement of reflection and backscattering of light, is a diagnostic technique used in cardiovascular surgery and ophthalmology. It provides cross-sectional images at resolutions comparable to that of low-power microscopy. The aim of this study was to determine […]

Ultrasound Backscattering Is Anisotropic in Bovine Articular Cartilage

Collagen, proteoglycans and chondrocytes can contribute to ultrasound scattering in articular cartilage. However, anisotropy of ultrasound scattering in cartilage is not fully characterized. We investigate this using a clinical intravascular ultrasound device with ultrasound frequencies of 9 and 40 MHz. Osteochondral samples were obtained from intact bovine patellas, and cartilage was imaged in two perpendicular […]

Application of optical coherence tomography enhances reproducibility of arthroscopic evaluation of equine joints

Abstract Background Arthroscopy is widely used in various equine joints for diagnostic and surgical purposes. However, accuracy of defining the extent of cartilage lesions and reproducibility in grading of lesions are not optimal. Therefore, there is a need for new, more quantitative arthroscopic methods. Arthroscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is a promising tool introduced […]

Inter-individual changes in cortical bone three-dimensional microstructure and elastic coefficient have opposite effects on radial sound speed

nowledge about simultaneous contributions of tissue microstructure and elastic properties on ultrasound speed in cortical bone is limited. In a previous study, porosities and elastic coefficients of cortical bone in human femurs were shown to change with age. In the present study, influences of inter-individual and site-dependent variation in cortical bone microstructure and elastic properties on radial speed of sound (SOS; at 4, 6, and […]

Ultrasound Arthroscopy of Human Knee Cartilage and Subchondral Bone in Vivo

Arthroscopic ultrasound imaging enables quantitative evaluation of articular cartilage. However, the potential of this technique for evaluation of subchondral bone has not been investigated in vivo. In this study, we address this issue in clinical arthroscopy of the human knee (n = 11) by determining quantitative ultrasound (9 MHz) reflection and backscattering parameters for cartilage and subchondral bone. Furthermore, in […]

Effect of porosity, tissue density, and mechanical properties on radial sound speed in human cortical bone

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of simultaneous changes in cortical porosity, tissue mineral density, and elastic properties on radial speed of sound (SOS) in cortical bone. The authors applied quantitative pulse‐echo (PE) ultrasound techniques that hold much potential especially for screening of osteoporosis at primary healthcare facilities. Currently, most […]

Phased-array ultrasound technology enhances accuracy of dual frequency ultrasound measurements – towards improved ultrasound bone diagnostics

Overlying soft tissues attenuate ultrasound backscattered from bone, complicating diagnostics of osteoporosis at the most important fracture sites. Dual-frequency ultrasound technique (DFUS) has been proposed to solve this problem through determination of thickness and composition of overlying soft tissue. This study applies DFUS technique for the first time with a phased-array transducer to investigate if […]

Collagen and Chondrocyte Concentrations Control Ultrasound Scattering in Agarose Scaffolds

Ultrasound imaging has been proposed for diagnostics of osteoarthritis and cartilage injuries in vivo. However, the specific contribution of chondrocytes and collagen to ultrasound scattering in articular cartilage has not been systematically studied. We investigated the role of these tissue structures by measuring ultrasound scattering in agarose scaffolds with varying collagen and chondrocyte concentrations. Ultrasound catheters with […]